Purwanchal (Eastern Development Region)

The Eastern Development Region consists of 3 zones (Koshi, Mechi and Sagarmatha)  and 16 districts. Dhankuta is the headquarters of the development region. The area of Eastern Development Region is 28,546 square kilometer. According to the Census 2001, its population is 5,344,476. and the density is 187.815/km2 (486.440/sq mi)
Brief Description of Zones of Eastern Development Region
Koshi Zone ( कोशी अञ्चल), is a  zone in Eastern Nepal, comprising six districts. The headquarters of Koshi zone is Biratnagar and is also its largest city. Other cities of Koshi zone are Inaruwa, Dharan, Dhankuta and Itahari. Its main rivers are the Arun, Tamar and Sapta Koshi.
Koshi Zone is divided into six districts:
  1. Bhojpur District
  2. Dhankuta District
  3. Morang District
  4. Sankhuwasabha District
  5. Sunsari District
  6. Terhathum District

Mechi (मेची अञ्चल), is a zone in Eastern Nepal. Its headquarters are at Ilam. It comes under the Eastern Region of Nepal . The Indian state of Bihar is to the south and Tibet to the north. The largest town is Damak in theTerai. The majority of the population in Mechi are Kirantis (Limbu people, Rai people) and other ethnic groups like Koche and Meche, and hill castes like Bahun and Chhetris.
            Among the four districts Jhapa is in the Terai and it is highly developed. Ilam and Panchthar are in the hilly region. Ilam is also in a developing stage. Ilam is naturally very beautiful. Many tourists visit Ilam annually. Kanyam is a  popular place because of the tea garden. Antu is the place from where the rising sun can be viewed. Panchthar is the least developed of the four districts. Taplejung is in mountainous zone.
There are two airports in the Mechi zone, in Bhadrapur and in Taplejung.
Mechi is divided into four districts:   
  1. Ilam District
  2. Jhapa District
  3. Panchthar District
  4. Taplejung District
Sagarmāthā zone( सगरमाथा अञ्चल), is a zone in Eastern Nepal. It includes mountain districts of the Himalayas (including Mount Everest) in the north, hill districts in the center, and valley districts of the Terai in the south. The borders of this zone are China to the north, India to the south, the Koshi Zone to the east and the Janakpur Zone to the west.
Sagarmāthā Zone is divided into six districts:
  1. Khotang District
  2. Okhaldhunga District
  3. Saptari District
  4. Siraha District
  5. Solukhumbu District
  6. Udayapur District
Physical Environment: The Eastern Development Region consists of the terai in the south, hill in the middle and mountains in the north. The world’s highest peak Mount Everest (8848 meter) and the third highest peak Mt.Kanchanjunga (8595 meter) lie in this region. Sagarmatha was climbed by Tenzing Norgey Sherpa and Sir Edmund Hillary in 2010 BS. British and the Sherpas were the first mountaineering team to climb Mt.river of Nepal, Koshi and its tributaries. Once it reaches India, it is jointed by river Ganga and ends in the Bay of Bengal. Although river Koshi has a large capacity of producing hydro-electricity due to its large volume of water, it has not been fully utilized to get the benefits. The hill region of Nepal is easily accessible than the mountainous regions. Here lies the Mahabharata range stretching all the way from east to west. It is rich in herbs. The Sagarmatha and Makalu Barun National Parks lies in this region. The Eastern Development Region is affected by the Monsoon winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal in summer bringing enough rainfall. Kanchanjunga in 2012 BS. Eastern Development Region is drained by the largest
Socio-economic Environment:   People belonging to different castes and ethnic groups live in the terai, hills and mountains of this region. In spite of different cultures and traditions there is unity in diversity. Rais and Limbus of Eastern Development Region have joined the British and Indain army and Sherpas are engaged in mountaineering. There are many underprivileged ethnic groups living in eastern development region. Eastern Development Region is essential that skilful training must be given to these people to raise their standard of living.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of this region. Monsoon winds bring enough rainfalls in summer to support of the growth of food crops like paddy, wheat and maize. Jute, tea, tobacco, sugarcane and cardamom are the main caste crops. Potatoes are grown from the terai in the south to mountains in the north. People follow subsistence type of agriculture. Cash crops are mainly grown for commercial purpose. Jute is one of the important cash crops as it is used to make sacks, carpets, ropes, etc. Most of the tea produced here is exported to foreign countries. Therefore, it is essential to develop tea plantation.
The Eastern Development Region is quite advanced in industry. The first Jute Mill and Sugar Mill of Nepal were established in the year 1993 BS and 2003 BS respectively. Biratnagar, Duhabi, Rajbiraj, Dhankuta and Dharan, etc are the main industrial towns of eastern development region. Jogbani, Kakarvitta, Lahan, Birtamod, Damak, IIlam, Bhadrapur, etc are the main trade centres. The Mahendra Highway runs through this region. There is Purbhanchal university in Biratnagar and a B.P. Koirala medical college in Dharan.
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